Publications >Agricultural Mechanization at a Glance
Selected Country Studies in Asia on Agricultural Machinery Development

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This study was written by Dr. Peeyush Soni of Asian Institute of Technology and Dr. Yinggang Ou of South China Agricultural University with the funding from the United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (UNAPCAEM).

To prepare for the study report, field visits were made by the writers to Bangladesh, China, India, Republic of Korea, the Philippines and Thailand, which represent varying levels of development of agricultural machinery in Asia to collect information and consult with various stakeholders including the government, research institutes and the private sector. The cooperation and support received for the study from Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) of India, Central Farm Machinery Testing and Training Institute (CFMTTI) of India, Rural Development Administration (RDA) of Korea, China Agricultural Machinery Testing Centre, South China Agricultural University, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand, University of the Philippines, Los Banos (UPLB), Department of Agriculture of the Philippines, and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) was gratefully acknowledged.

Special thanks are due to Ms. Francia M. Macalintal, Mr. Jimmy Batocabe, Mr. Delfin C. Suministrado, Mr. Romulo E. Eisebio, Mr. Darwin C. Araguren, Dr. Arsenio N. Resurreccion, Dr. Arnold R. Elepano, Mr. Balbind C. Geronimo, Mr. Akkapol Senanarong, Mr. Viboon Thepent, Dr. Anuchit Chamsing Aert, Dr. Vilas M. Salokhe, Dr. Md. Yousuf Mian, Md. Shoeb Hassan, Professor M. P. Pandey, Dr. S. K. Tandon, Dr. Ganesan, Dr. Pitam Chandra, Dr. L. P. Gite and Dr. S. D. Kulkarni, Mr. V. N. Kale, Mr. Pandey, Mr. Nagesh, Dr. Hyuck-Joo Kim, Dr. Kakkyu Kim, Dr. Kyu-Hong Choi, Dr. Kwang-Young Jung, Professor Wang Maohua, Professor Minli Yang, Mr. Zhuo Liu, Professor Yuan¡¯en Gao, Mr. Liang Zhu, Mr. Xuexin Fan and staff of UNAPCAEM including Director Mr. LeRoy Hollenbeck, Senior Expert Ms. Yuxin Ai, Programme Assistants Mr. Yuemin Shen and Ms. Jinyuan Ma, IT Assistant Mr. Zhen Wei, Mr. Rabi Rasaily, and Mr. Spire Arsove, interns of UNAPCAEM, for their guidance, valuable inputs and assistance in various ways.

The study also benefited from data and information contained in country reports on agricultural mechanization and testing submitted to sessions of the Technical Committee of UNAPCAEM by representatives of member countries over the past few years.


  Executive Summary

Home to more than 64 percent of the world¡¯s undernourished people, the Asia-Pacific region is threatened by lingering food insecurity and thus is in urgent need of increasing food production. In recent years, the promotion of farm mechanization, which has proven to be an effective way to increase agricultural productivity, has exerted revolutionary impact on the agricultural sector of this region. However, the region is still characterized by huge technological gaps and varying levels of mechanization. Meanwhile, the application of agricultural machinery has caused environmental concerns due to high energy consumption and posed safety hazards as a result of substandard machines and lack of training.

Aiming at the analyzing the contributing factors and providing practical strategies to address the above-mentioned issues, the study reviews the economic, social and agricultural development, especially the development of agricultural mechanization in Asia by conducting studies on challenges and prospects of agricultural mechanization in six selected Asian countries. It also explores the feasibility of establishing an ¡°Asia Pacific Network for Testing Agricultural Machinery¡± (ANTAM), which was proposed at the Roundtable Forum for the Regional Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers/Distributors Associations held in Seoul, Korea in November 2006.

The study points out that traditional agricultural techniques and cultivation practices have changed significantly with breakthroughs of science and technology. It analyzes a host of factors that affect agricultural mechanization of the region, including overall level of economic development, migration of rural labor, land utilization, agricultural production, food demand, agricultural machinery industry, trade and manufacturing capacity and testing. The study examines the interactions among agricultural mechanization, food production and agricultural development of the region.

Six countries were chosen for case studies, namely Bangladesh, China, India, Republic of Korea, Thailand and the Philippines, representing different stages of agricultural mechanization. Through visits and talks with policy makers, researchers and the private sector in the six countries, and thorough review of country reports prepared by representatives to the Technical Committee of UNAPCAEM, the authors have collected extensive data and information on agricultural mechanization, and conducted thorough analysis. The study identifies the main characteristics of agricultural mechanization of each country, and assesses their respective needs in agricultural mechanization.

The feasibility study on the establishment of ¡°ANTAM¡± is an important part of this report. ¡°ANTAM¡± is proposed with an aim to promote introduction of uniform testing procedures and safety standards of agricultural machinery, and facilitate intraregional trade. Based on the selected country case studies, the study extrapolates the general characteristics of agriculture mechanization in the region, assesses the overall level of agricultural mechanization, and identifies major constraints to agricultural mechanization. According to the study, while there exists strong demand for agricultural mechanization in the region, there are undeniable imbalances that impede the development of such a network, including huge gaps in economic development, underdeveloped agricultural infrastructure, insufficient purchasing power of farmers, and significantly different level of agricultural machinery industry. The study groups countries in the region into three categories according to their levels of agricultural mechanization, and points out the common constraints they are facing, i.e. fragmented lands, diverse machinery types and facilities, poor utilization rate and higher fuel consumption and lack of knowledge and skill of users, artisans and traders. The authors also provide the overall situation of testing and certification of farm machinery in this region, and draw a comparison with the European Network for Testing Agricultural Machines (ENTAM). While ENTAM might be a useful model to assimilate for Asia, the authors argue that there are a host of constraints including financial, administrative and stakeholders that need to addressed first.

The authors believe that agricultural mechanization will play an irreplaceable role in increasing agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region by upgrading traditional agriculture, achieving high and stable yield, and improving the quality and value-added of agricultural products. At the same time, efforts need to be made to address safety and environmental issues associated with agricultural mechanization in the course of development.



Table of Contents


Chapter I Regional Outlook ¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­7

Chapter II Country Case Study¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­16
A) BANGLADESH¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­16
B) PEOPLE¡¯S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­30
C) INDIA¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­48
D) THE PHILIPPINES¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­83
E) REPUBLIC OF KOREA ¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­94
F) THAILAND ¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­112

Chapter III Feasibility Study on Asian and Pacific
Network for Testing Agricultural Machinery ¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­¡­120


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